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Morocco and Tunisia in Global Value Chains: focus on business services as innovation drivers

February 2019. Directed by José A. Camacho.

Maroc et Tunisie dans les chaînes de valeur mondiales : les services aux entreprises comme moteurs d’Innovation

International trade increasingly involves the exchange of services and goods that are used in production process to generate intermediate inputs and final products to be shipped all over the world. According to the OECD, about 60% of international trade is related to intermediate inputs. This radically affects the traditional analysis of international trade as exports embed imported intermediate inputs and the direct importing country can differ from the country where the product is absorbed by final demand.


One of the major reasons for the rising share of trade in intermediate inputs is that companies increasingly organise their sourcing strategies on a global basis thus leading to emergence of Global Value Chains (GVCs). The concept of Global Value Chain appeared for the first time in the discussions of the Global Value Chains Initiative (2000-2005) supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and it was formalised by Gereffi et al. in 2005. According to Gereffi et al. (2005, p. 79), GVCs research and policy “examine the different ways in which global production and distribution systems are integrated, and the possibilities for firms in developing countries to enhance their position in global markets”. In other words, GVCs try to account for globalisation and fragmentation of production in the sense employed by Dicken (2003, p. 12), that is, by taking into consideration not only the geography spread of activities across national boundaries but also their integration and coordination.

Wednesday, February 6th 2019
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